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currency: Dram (AMD)
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Armenia profile
landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains;
Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Armenia history
Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century).

Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman.

During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths.

The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.

Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.

The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1994 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth.

In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

Conventional short form: Armenia

Local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

Local short form: Hayastan

Formerly known as: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
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Armenia's capital city is Yerevan
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Armenia Constitution:
adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995;
amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005
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Armenia population growth rate: 0.107%
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Armenia highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
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Armenia lowest point: Debed River 400 m
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About 17% of Armenia's land is arable.
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Aras River is the Longest River in Armenia
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Armenia birth rate is 13 births/1,000 population
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Armenia infant mortality rate is 18 deaths/1,000 live births
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Armenia fertility rate is 1.39 children born/woman
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Armenia climate:

highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
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Top 10 cities of Armenia with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Yerevan: 1,107,800
2. Gyumri: 168,918
3. Vanadzor: 116,929
4. Vagharshapat: 58,000
5. Hrazdan: 42,150
6. Abovyan: 36,705
7. Artashat: 35,100
8. Kapan: 35,071
9. Armavir: 26,387
10. Gavar: 22,444
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Armenia ethnic groups:

Armenian - 97.9%
Yezidi (Kurd) - 1.3%
Russian - 0.5%
other - 0.3%
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Armenia Exports:

pig iron
unwrought copper
nonferrous metals
diamonds
mineral products
foodstuffs
energy
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Armenia Imports:

natural gas
petroleum
tobacco products
foodstuffs
diamonds
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unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote, 90 members elected by party list and 41 by direct vote; to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz)
1. Aragatsotn
2. Ararat
3. Armavir
4. Geghark'unik'
5. Kotayk'
6. Lorri
7. Shirak
8. Syunik'
9. Tavush
10. Vayots' Dzor
11. Yerevan
Political parties and leaders:
Armenian National Congress (ANC) (bloc of independent and opposition parties) - Levon TER-PETROSSIAN

Armenian National Movement (ANM) - Ararat ZURABIAN

Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) (ARF) - Hrant MARKARIAN

Heritage Party - Raffi HOVHANNISIAN

People's Party of Armenia - Stepan DEMIRCHIAN

Prosperous Armenia - Gagik TSARUKIAN

Republican Party of Armenia (RPA) - Serzh SARGSIAN

Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) - Artur BAGHDASARIAN









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