Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road. It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Greco Bactrians, Indo Greeks, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khwarazmians, Qarlughids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, and Hotaks, until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire (also known as the "Afghan Empire") in 1747. Kabul became the capital of Afghan Empire in 1776, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The city is divided into 22 districts.
Black symbolizes Afghanistan's troubled past
Red stands for the blood shed for Afghanistan's independence
Green symbolizes hope for the future, prosperity and represents Islam
National Emblem represents Islam and features a mosque with its mihrab (the niche which shows the direction to the Muslim Holy City of Mecca) and Minbar (the pulpit from which sermons are preached) flanked by two national flags of Afghanistan on either side; below the mosque are numerals for the Islamic calendar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are the rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan in Arabic
The national flag of Afghanistan (د افغانستان بيرغ) consists of a vertical tricolor with the classical National Emblem in the center. The current flag was adopted on August 19, 2013, but many similar designs had been in use throughout most of the 20th century. The black color represents its troubled 19th century history as a protected state, the red color represents the blood fought for independence (specifically, the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919), and the green represents hope and prosperity for the future. Afghanistan has had 26 different flags since the first flag when the Hotaki dynasty was established in 1709. During the 20th century alone, Afghanistan went through 19 different national flags, more than any other country during that time period. The tricolor design was introduced by the King Amanullah Khan in June 1928. Having just returned from a trip to Europe, Amanullah Khan was impressed by the European tricolor flags, especially the German tricolor (black-red-gold).
Afghanistan Flag history