UK - United Kingdom
    India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for 17 countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them.[181] India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[182][183] Fully a third of Indian plant species are endemic.[184] India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots,[57] or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.[j][185] India's forest cover is 701,673 km2 (270,917 sq mi), which is 21.35% of the country's total land area. It can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy.[186] Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 2.61% of India's land area.[186] It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India.[187] Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.59% of India's land area.[186] It predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India.[187] Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.14% of India's land area,[186] and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan Plateau and the western Gangetic plain.[187] Among the Indian subcontinent's notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine,[188] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul,[189] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro,[190] and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment,[191] Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago.[192] India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[193] Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalayas.[187] This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians.[183] Notable endemics are the vulnerable[194] hooded leaf monkey[195] and the threatened[196] Beddom's toad[196][197] of the Western Ghats.